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Jobs With a Process Technology AAS Degree

Once you finish high school, you have a host of options awaiting you. If you’d like to work in the manufacturing and processing industry in the process operations field, then you’ll need a two-year Associate of Applied Science (AAS) degree, which will definitely help you get your foot in the door, or rather, in the factory. After you’ve completed this degree, what kind of job options are you open for and in what industries?

Process Technician

  • Process technicians are essential human resources in organizations such as refineries, power generation firms, oil and gas production companies, food processing plants and biotechnology firms. Since almost all manufacturing industries require process technicians, this suggests that there are plenty of jobs requiring a process technology degree. And as far as job security, according to the North Carolina Biotechnology Center, “Qualified process technicians are integral to the success of many biotechnology employers. It can take several years to train someone on all phases of a complex manufacturing process, so employers are highly motivated to retain their experienced process technicians with competitive salaries, excellent benefits, and opportunities for advancement.”

Operations Technician in Metal and Steel Industry

  • If you’re looking for a job in the metal and metallurgy industry, then you need to have an AAS degree before you get onto the factory floor. This degree will equip you with the knowledge and skills required for handling electronics, computer applications, process parts and inductors. It will also give you experience that matters when you’re dealing with industrial safety and electricity restrictions. Being an operations technician with an AAS degree will also open many doors for your advancement through to line management.

Process Technician in Biotechnology and Bioprocess Technology

  • One of the best paying jobs with a process technology degree, a biotechnology process technician is an essential cog in the biotechnology industry wheel, so to speak. If you’re interested in joining this industry, then you need to complete a process technology AAS degree and join up with a pharmaceutical, chemical or research firm. Here, along with your skill set and education, you’ll need to have a sense of caution, because dealing with drugs and chemicals is never easy, especially when large-scale food or drug manufacturing is involved.

Operations Technician in Oil and Gas Industry

  • Refineries, petrochemical firms and oil and natural gas organizations are all organizations that rely heavily on process and operations technicians. If you’re wondering about how you’ll get an exciting and challenging process technology job, then don’t worry. These industries are always on the hunt for process technicians who are smart, able and capable of making quick decisions. Jobs in this industry tend to pay a lot.

Market Analysis for Cereal

Cereal production is an $11 billion industry, according to a 2014 IBISWorld report. A U.S. Department of Agriculture study says 80 percent of retail cereal sales came from the ready-to-eat cereal category. The cereal industry, especially in the cold cereal segment, could face eroding sales because of economic conditions and competition from breakfast foods perceived to be more convenient and healthier than cereal.

Challengers to Cold Cereal

  • Yogurt leads the products that are competing with cereal for consumer dollars spent on breakfast. “Forbes” magazine reports that yogurt occupies 40 percent of the breakfast market, second only to cold cereal. Fast food restaurants offer alternatives to cold cereal, especially as households are expected to have more spending money between 2014 and 2019, says IBISWorld.

The Hot Stuff

  • Hot cereals — oatmeal and grits — claim 12 percent of the cereal market. “Forbes” reported a 4 percent sales increase in this hot zone in fiscal year 2013, and market researcher Mintel reports that sales rose 7 percent from 2011 to 2013. According to “Forbes,” these products attract working mothers who need quick breakfasts. Consumers have also turned to cereal bars to fit eating into their full itineraries. In 2011, 35 percent of the cereal market consisted of cereal bars.

Healthier Alternatives

  • Consumers are trending away from sugar- and carbohydrate-dominated cereals to products with more fiber and whole grains. According to a USDA study, cereal makers between 2005 and 2011 were diminishing the sugar, carbohydrate and sodium content of their products and increasing fiber content. Low-fat yogurt appeals to consumers who want to avoid being among the one-third of Americans who are obese.

Children at the Core

  • Declining birth rates could translate to fewer children, who form the nucleus of the cold cereal market. Latino consumers may fill the gap, says a 2014 report from Packaged Facts. This division of Market Research LLC predicts growth in the population of Latinos under age 14 and reports that a quarter of children and youth under 14 in Texas and California are Latino. Further, 39 percent of Latino households with members under age 21 ate cold cereal, versus 33 percent of non-Latino households.

Steel Industry Uses of Oxygen

Oxygen has many important uses within the steel industry, each of them involves the heating and melting of metals. Oxygen is a popular gas used in steel-making, in part due to the continued use of the basic oxygen furnace. Oxygen has a number of common uses in the industry, depending on the furnace under consideration.

Blast Furnaces

  • Blast furnaces account for up to 40 percent of the total amount of oxygen used in a typical integrated steel mill. Oxygen is injected into these furnaces through spargers–devices used to spray gas into a system–to enrich the air. This process increases the productivity of the furnace. It also serves to lower coke consumption by facilitating the addition of powdered coal and natural gas to the furnace. Using oxygen in a blast furnace lowers the overall cost of production.

Basic Oxygen Furnaces

  • In basic oxygen furnaces, oxygen is used for decarburization–the process of decreasing the level of carbon in metals–and the conversion of hot metal formed in a blast furnace to liquid steel. This process typically accounts for about half the amount of oxygen used in an integrated steel mill. When oxygen reacts with silicon and carbon, it produces a large amount of heat. This heat is enough to melt scrap metal in large quantities.

Electric Arc Furnaces

  • Electric arc furnaces have three primary uses for oxygen. Oxygen is used to run oxy-fuel burners used for heating and melting scrap metal. Oxygen is used in high-velocity lancing. High-velocity lancing is used in localized scrap melting processes, decarburization of steel and slag foaming. Oxygen is used in sub-sonic injection processes used for post combustion of carbon dioxide.

Rotary Furnaces

  • Rotary furnaces used to depend on sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxides to heat metal. They have since switched to pure oxygen. Using pure oxygen allows for the avoidance of heat loss, thereby reducing the amount of time the furnace needs to complete tasks as well as its overall costs.

Steel Reheating, Cutting and Burning

  • Oxygen is used in steel reheating furnaces. In particular, oxygen is used for enrichment or two run oxy-burners, as blast furnaces and rotary furnaces, respectively. Using oxy-fuel burners in this process contributes to reduced fuel consumption when compared to other gases. High-purity oxygen is used in cutting and burning processes to run automatic cutoff torches, as well as in the cutting of crops and other forms of mill scrap.

Clay Desiccant Packets for Medical Equipment

In concurrent times the medical industry had gone truly global and thus truly dynamic. The geographical distance between the manufacturer and the consumers had faded away. Also, the general public holds greater awareness of the aspects of the medicines. It is inevitable that the medicines need to come in the perfect quality standing to make any worth. Since the medicines are handled in bulk volumes, the quality of the packaging matters a lot and in this regards as the medicines are prone to get attacked by the moistures accumulating inside the packages, there needs to be solved that would eradicates these threats.

Humidity, moisture and vapors- Biggest threats to the medical industry

The best of the solution that can be lent to these situations lies with the desiccants that are Moisture Absorbing Products. These products come in various specification and forms and it acts like a drying agent that absorbs the moisture that accumulates inside the packages. To keep the medicines safe and in perfect state, it needs to be protected from these instances and the threats arising from fungal effects and water vapors too. The Moisture Absorbing Products serve this concern as it absorbs those moistures and vapors thereby keeping the medicines safer for usages.

Clay Desiccant- Minimizes the threats

Out of the varied forms of desiccants, the Clay Desiccant Packets are the ones that find the maximum of usages in the medical industry. As these materials are made of natural minerals, these products are better environmental-friendly. Among the category of the desiccants, the clay type holds the highest capacity to absorb the moistures, gasses and the water vapors, across the normal to varied range of temperature. These packets are non-dusting, non-leaking, and non-corrosive and neither has it displayed any toxic nature. Thus these forms of desiccants are perfectly suited for usage on medical domains. The Clay Desiccant Packets involve the Tyvek materials in its making and it comply with the specifications as set by the FDA.

The holistic advantages of these products

It is possible to regenerate the clay desiccants easily at lower scales of temperature and it possesses recyclable capacities. The user simply needs to select the right specification that best-fits to these requirements and after that these product function at the optimum level to safeguard the medicines for longer stretches of time. These products had been helping the manufacturers to prevent the wastage of medicines, thereby keeping the price of medicines within the reaches of the mass.

How Are Robots Used in Industry?

Industrial robots first appeared in 1954, and by 1962 they were performing spot welding and extracted die-castings at the General Motors plant in New Jersey. Since then, robots have taken away some work in factories but opened new job opportunities in other roles. The variety of tasks and situations in which robots can perform is one reason the robotics company RobotWorx says that industrial robots are reshaping the manufacturing industry.

Arc Welding

  • Arc-welding robots are common in steel production and automobile manufacturing plants. While human operators most often do the preparatory work, robots handle the parts and perform the weld. In addition to improving weld consistency, decreasing cycle times and enhancing production efficiency, welding robots have distinct health and safety advantages. Welding, which involves applying intense heat to connect two pieces of metal, exposes human workers to hazardous fumes and risks of arc burns. Replacing human workers with welding robots eliminates these risks.

Assembly Lines

  • Assembly robots are especially common in industries that use lean manufacturing processes. According to the ABB Group, a global power and technology company, an automated assembly line supports lean manufacturing businesses ranging from food processors to automotive manufacturing plants in a number of ways. Robots reduce waste, and decrease both wait and changeover time as they increase accuracy, consistency and assembly line speed. In addition, robots save human operators from tedious assembly line jobs.

Picking and Packing

  • The faster and more efficiently you can pick and pack products as they come off the assembly line, the better. However, picking and packing jobs require dexterity, consistency and flexibility, which over time can not only tax the health and safety of human workers but also decrease efficiency and speed. Picking and packing robots ensure consistent throughput, a measure of productivity within a given amount of time, which is why picking and packing robots are common in manufacturing industries.

Other Applications

  • Although welding, assembly, and picking and packing robots are the most common types of industrial robots, some industries use robots to perform other tasks. For example, electronics and optical industries that are sensitive about contamination often use clean-room robots that perform tasks in isolated, sealed and insulated environments. Aerospace, automotive, electronics, food and textile industries use water-jet robots to cut, drill and clean a variety of materials. Milling, drilling and cutting robots are common in CNC industries, such as tooling and prototype development.

Types of Industries & Jobs Available in the United States

The United States has a wide variety of industries that need talented workers who have specific knowledge and skills in those fields. The technology industry has experienced unprecedented growth over the past two decades and is the fastest growing field in the country. Agriculture is a stable industry that often has job openings. And entertainment is another thriving industry, offering unique work amid steady demand for television shows and films.

Technology Industry

  • As technology becomes more and more integrated into our life and society, more and more competent workers are needed. Whether it’s programming, entering data for website or databases or working in a factory, more and more high-tech are jobs available every year, encouraging workers to refocus their abilities. Continuing-education classes to learn new technological skills may be necessary for some.

Agricultural Industry

  • U.S. agriculture is an enormous industry, producing much of the nation’s food and fiber, ranging from processed foods to the booming organic food market. Jobs available in this sector range from building the tractors and machines that farmers use to the science and chemistry of what makes crops grow to being a farmer. Varying degrees of formal education are required.

Entertainment Industry

  • An industry that first truly boomed in the United States, entertainment always has job openings for creative and business-minded people in a wide range of capacities. From lawyers to artists to teamsters, the entertainment business employs just about every skill set to bring imagination and stories to television, the movies and now even cell phones. While the hubs of the entertainment industry are Los Angeles and New York City, the technological revolution has made creating your own entertainment easier than ever, allowing those with the necessary skills to work from just about anywhere.

Plastazote: An amazing versatile Material

Plastazote  is a versatile man-made polyethylene foam which is produced as a byproduct of oil. Plastazote  is a vast number of nitrogen cells held in a mass of polyethylene. In contrast to other foams, it is tough and flexible, defined by the regular shapes, sides and walls of the cells made from polyethylene. This shows the material is so light and  liquids cannot pass through it and be absorbed.

If the Plastazote is squashed and compressed, each cell acts like a balloon and the foam bounces back to its original shape. Plastazote is lightweight, non-toxic, odourless, non absorbent and  It can be washed, disinfected and wiped clean which has excellent chemical resistance to most oils. Plastazote in india very commonly used as it have weather proof propreties and has good ultraviolet stability and it is durable, tough and flexible that recovers repeatedly from impacts.

It is a highly energy absorbent material and is a very good thermal insulator. They are the only products of their type which are expanded using pure nitrogen gas. This results in pure chemically inert foams having an excellent physical properties. Plastazote made using solid chemical blowing agent systems always contain a significant amount of blowing agent chemical residues which can detract from the physical, chemical and biological properties of the foamed polymer. Foams manufactured using volatile liquids can suffer from dimensional changes. Can be easily shaped, cut and bonded to other materials.

In everyday activities like in swimming pools for floats and buoyancy aids, as waterslide mats, surfboards, pool toys, sleeping mats, gym and exercise mats and like many other activies plastazotes in India as well as all over the world it is used. It is used as body protection for various sports and  shoe insoles and helmet liners. It has important uses in health care as supports, orthopedic shoes, surgical splints and collars, as well as mobility equipment for the disabled.

Theatres and film sets around the world use it to make stage props and set designs, costumes, masks and hats. Other applications are for sound and pipe insulation, gaskets, anti-vibration pads. Now a days Plastazote in India is commonly used because of having application include packaging, display, protective, automotive, health care and construction. The inert qualities of Plastazote  have its widespread worldwide use in healthcare applications. It is a highly energy absorbent material and is a very good thermal insulator. Some other Applications of Plastazote includes Storage and packing of fragile items, Box making, Backing and support panels, Drawer and box liners, Customized packaging, Picture framing etc.

Facts About the Automobile Industry

The automotive industry worldwide produced about 806 million cars that remain on the road today, with more than 250 million of those vehicles operating in the United States. But the industry plunged into a steep financial decline in the first decade of the twenty-first century, which was exacerbated with the collapse of American financial institutions beginning in 2008. Most automakers posted losses in 2008-09, with the United States government providing multi-billion-dollar bailouts to General Motors and Chrysler LLC.

Stiff Competition

  • After two decades of aggressive expansion, Japanese automakers produced 12.5 million vehicles in 1992, while American car builders built 11.7 million that same year.

Growing Demand

  • American and Japanese automakers struggled in the early 2000s to keep up with the demand from India and China to produce cars, while alliances between American, Japanese and Indian builders become common.
    Chrysler cited slow sales in 2001 for discontinuing its Plymouth line.

External Pressure

  • Rising fuel prices in 2007-08 and competition from public transportation dramatically changed customer buying habits, while 51 American assembly plants and more than half a million jobs were projected to be lost by 2010.
    General Motors announced in April 2009 that it was discontinuing its Pontiac line in 2010.

Ford Losses

  • The Ford Motor Company reported a $14.6 billion loss in 2008 but refused government bailout funds, saying that $23 million in commercial loans would carry it through the crisis.
    Ford planned to eliminate more car lines to make the company profitable.

GM Bailout

  • General Motors received $15.4 billion in government bailout money by February 2009, but cut nearly 8,000 jobs that month.

Benefits of Using Light Weight Deflectometer Over Other Methods of Soil Testing

Soil testing methods vary across the board. Often, the modern testing method is the better. This is because they feature modern technology that traditional tools and approaches lack. Additionally, tests developed at later dates also offer more updated methodologies that are more likely to comply with recent industry standards. Modern portable light weight deflectometers for example, are preferred by engineers and designers, not only because they are new, but because they offer many benefits (both technical and economic) over traditional tools and methods.
However, this is not to say that traditional methods don’t have their merits. Depending on the type of substrates and the extent of area being tested, some testing methods and tools are still more suitable and advantageous than others. For testing pavements, subgrades, and subbases, the light weight deflectometer is definitely a superior choice of tool.

Lightweight deflectometers offer the same accuracy as the larger devices on which their design was based upon—traditional falling weight deflectometers (FWDs). These tools on the other hand, provide the unique benefit of portability because they are a lot more compact than FWDs whose sheer size and weight often delimits the types of soils and the kinds of areas they can test. Light weight deflectometers, unlike huge machines can test a range of different materials, ranging from asphaltic pavements to unbound subbases and subgrades, thinner, more sensitive pavements, and even recycled, foamed bitumen-bound materials.

Other types of soil testing tools and processes require calibration and tedious set-up (such as time-consuming safety tests), which can cause inaccuracies and problematic readings. Light weight deflectometers don’t. In fact, these modern devices streamline the testing process and only require single-person handling so you can get other hands on deck to work on other aspects of the project instead of spending hours on field testing. High quality light weight deflectometers can perform as many as 30 tests within the same period it takes to perform one Benkelman Beam test. Not only do they streamline the testing process, light weight deflectometers also offer superior result accuracy, which remain unaffected by little material changes over the length of the pavement.

In addition to quicker and more convenient testing, light weight deflectometers are also cheaper to run and operate. While initial investment for the machine may be significant, long-term benefits are obvious over other methods like nuclear density testing, CBR tests, and other static plate load bearing tests. light weight deflectometer

How to Analyze Industry Trends

Most market or business analyses must include an analysis of the industry. One of the most popular frameworks used to analyze industry trends is the SWOT analysis. In this acronym, the “SW” stands for strengths and weaknesses, while the “OT” stand for opportunities and threats. The difference between SW and OT is that one is internal and the other external.


  1. Determine the industry you would like to analyze.
  2. Research and gather industry reports and recent news articles related to the industry. Research the top five companies in the industry as well.
  3. Develop the opportunities and threats to the SWOT. The main difference between strengths and opportunities is that opportunities are caused by external industry factors; weakness and threats are similar, but the latter is a function of the industry.
  4. List the opportunities in the industry. These are any growth prospects, future announcements in mergers and acquisitions, or other industry developments.
  5. List out all threats to the industry. These are the main threats to industry growth and prosperity such as regulation or economic concerns.

Regulations in the Pharmaceutical Industry
The pharmaceutical industry is a highly regulated business with many rules dictated by the government to protect the public. The Food and Drug Administration is the organization responsible for dictating regulatory policies in the United States. There are many different actions the FDA takes to ensure pharmaceutical companies meet regulatory requirements.


  • Regulations in the pharmaceutical industry began in the early 1900s. The Food and Drugs Act, enacted in 1906, was the first of more than than 200 laws and acts that aimed to protect consumers from drug companies. The Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, passed in 1934, gave the FDA the right to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics. The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 ensured FDA staff would have the resources needed to conduct further regulatory reviews when necessary for new drugs and devices.

Regulatory Guidance Drug Registration and Listing

  • The FDA also helps regulate the pharmaceutical industry by making drug companies register all of their products and manufacturing locations. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act states that pharmaceutical drug manufacturers must register their establishment(s), as well as submit a listing with the FDA for every product they plan to distribute commercially. This regulatory system helps the FDA keep track of human and veterinary drugs.

Division of Drug Marketing, Advertising, and Communications (DDMAC)

  • The FDA’s Division of Drug Marketing, Advertising, and Communications (DDMAC) reviews prescription drug advertising and promotional information to make sure all promotional materials are truthful, balanced and not misleading. Pharmaceutical companies must submit all promotional marketing materials to DDMAC, and DDMAC in turn provides feedback on copy and graphics that can’t be used. DDMAC is also responsible for reviewing complaints about possible promotional violations, and taking action against companies who don’t comply with FDA regulations. Lastly, DDMAC compares the product labeling and promotional materials of similar pharmaceutical products to compare them and ensure that regulatory restrictions are met.

Warning Letters

  • Occasionally, the FDA will come across a misleading claim about a pharmaceutical product, and it will submit a warning letter to the company who made the claim. The CDER Freedom of Information Office (FOI) controls the warning letter process. Once a warning letter has been submitted to a pharmaceutical company, the company must address the issue, or it will face serious fines and other repercussions.

Fast-Food Industry: The Bargaining Power of Suppliers

The bargaining power of suppliers in the fast-food industry varies significantly from business to business and across time and location. A fast-food business’s investment in a specific supplier and the availability of other suppliers both play key roles in supplier bargaining power.

Brand Names

  • Brand-name suppliers tend to have more bargaining power. For example, McDonald’s has contracts with Newman’s Own and Coca-Cola and uses these brand names to attract brand-loyal customers. These suppliers have more bargaining power, because if they stop supplying restaurants, the restaurants may lose money or be forced to change their marketing strategies.

Availability of Other Suppliers

  • In a market saturated with suppliers of the same or similar products, an individual supplier’s bargaining power diminishes. Restaurants can simply switch to another supplier offering the same product. This means that the suppliers may have to meet more of the buyers’ demands, and buyers can put pressure on suppliers to reduce costs, offer better products, reduce delivery times or provide higher volume.

Cost and Quality Issues

  • A supplier that offers a product at a significantly reduced price compared to other suppliers has more bargaining power, even in a saturated market. Similarly, if one supplier offers a superior product, better efficiency or rapid delivery times, this supplier’s bargaining power will be higher than other suppliers in the industry. Fast-food restaurants operate on high volume, so rapid replacement of supplies at a low cost can save restaurants time, money and hassle. If a supplier provides the cheapest, most efficient or highest quality items, it has more bargaining power.

Portion of Supplier’s Business

  • A supplier’s willingness to bargain — and risk losing a client — is partially based upon the supplier’s budget, as well as how much of its business comes from a specific fast-food restaurant. A supplier with a thriving, diversified client base has more bargaining power than a supplier who relies solely on one or two restaurants.

The Benefits of the Pharmaceutical Industry

The pharmaceutical industry has been an easy target for critics over the years. There is a perception that “Big Pharma” is strictly out for profit and that pharmaceutical companies will stop at nothing to line the pockets of their shareholders. The reality is this: Many of these drugs are saving lives and helping people live happier, healthier lives.

Better Health Outcomes

  • According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the pharmaceutical industry develops and produces products that help treat a variety of diseases, saving millions of lives and helping people suffering from diseases and illnesses to recover and lead more productive lives. The pharmaceutical industry develops drugs that treat every type of condition imaginable, such as influenza, sexually transmitted diseases, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hepatitis, Parkinson's disease and cancer, to name a few. Many of these are devastating and life-altering diseases, and these products help keep patients alive longer.


  • While some may view the cost of pharmaceutical drugs as a negative aspect of the industry, you can also see cost as a benefit. According to the Pharmaceutcial Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), the market share of generic pharmaceuticals was between 42 and 58 percent in 2006. What this means is generic drugs are increasingly available to patients, which drives down costs. Most reports in the media discuss the high cost of drugs and lack of access for certain patients, but the reality is that drugs today are cheaper and more accessible than ever before due to increased competition in the marketplace. Additionally, economic development in countries like India and China are driving down global prices for pharmaceutical products even more.

Economic Benefits

  • Pharmaceutical companies employed nearly 300,000 people in the United States in 2008, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and nearly 87 percent of the companies in the pharmaceutical industry employed more than 100 workers in 2008. The tax benefits to the United States are substantial as well. Pfizer alone posted $44 billion worth of revenue in 2008, according to Contract Pharma. The economic climate impacts the pharmaceutical industry, but profitable companies result in more taxable revenue for the U.S. People may criticize this amount of profit from one company, but consider this: The underlying goal of every single business is to make money. People single out pharmaceutical companies for making profits, but it's important to remember that they also create products that save millions of lives.

Careers in the Pharmaceutical Industry

The pharmaceutical industry is one of the most desirable to work for worldwide. There are many reasons for this, but it is principally due to the tremendous benefits and prestige that these companies offer. Research technicians, analysts of every variety, engineers, nurses, doctors, phlebotomists, scientists, biologists, chemists, medical ethicists, microbiologists, geneticists and others such as quality control experts, factory workers and field personnel fill out the careers in this industry.

General Qualifications

  • Due to the complexity and the management of corporate proprietary processes, positions in this industry are highly valued. Higher levels of education are the norm in this industry. Research technicians are one of these positions because they conduct experiments under the watchful eyes of the lead scientist. Bachelors’ degrees are usually the minimum educational requirement, with masters and doctorate degrees preferred in the specialty areas. Workers on the factory floor on the other hand can get by with a high school diploma or General Equivalency Diploma and a certificate of ability to work with forklifts, as an example.
    Educational Background

The Scientist

  • If scientific research is your qualification, the reasons for joining a pharmaceutical company (pharma) may lie in the grand flexibility of conducting various research models or focusing on one thread of a larger spool, such as dedicating years to finding a process that may one day cure a disease.

    After a discovery is found, the process is passed along to the other members of the research team such as the biotechnologist and on to others as well to find any variant that may harm or improve the quality of the newly discovered development or culture.

    Scientist at Work

Some Statistics

  • In 2006, pharma and other medical manufacturing provided over 290,000 positions. Most in-facility positions are located Pennsylvania, New York, Illinois, California, Texas, New Jersey, Indiana, North Carolina and Puerto Rico according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, there should be a 23.7 increase in all positions by the year 2016. Most workers in the industry have a minimum of a bachelor degree and there are twice as many individuals with degrees as in any other industry.

Pharmaceutical Sales

  • For persons with virtually any type of sales experience, the top of the mountain would be pharmaceutical sales. The benefits are simply outstanding and include a nice car with fun toys and two credit cards, one for gasoline and the other for entertaining customers, which happen to be physicians. The main responsibility is to convince the physician that the product you have works better than the product from the competitor. Physicians are showered with pens, cups, promotional samples, prescription forms and other materials that bear the product’s name and logo.

    Success in the ability to convince physicians to prescribe a particular product is tracked by how much of the product is sold and/or ordered from the pharmacies in the zip code during a given time, which happens to be in the assigned territory.

The Final Word

  • The pharmaceutical industry is a challenging and rewarding place to work, but be aware of companies that make false claims about preparing people to enter the industry by offering certificates of completion and/or training of some sort. Unless a company is recruiting right from the university, chances are that they want people with industry experience or verifiable success in advertising sales. The reason for this is simple: if success is proven in the advertising industry, then you know first hand what rejection is. In pharma sales, you will receive plenty of rejection.

Fashion Industry & How it Works

The fashion industry is a thriving industry, creating the billions of dresses, suits and other clothing and accessories consumers purchase. The fashion industry works in the following way: The process for creating ready-to-wear or haute couture clothing starts with fashion market research and trend forecasting. Designers work to create the apparel drafting. After the design has been approved by the designer, apparel production begins. Once the product is complete, fashion marketing and fashion buying come into play. The process ends with fashion merchandising retail. The product is seen in department stores and high-end boutiques.


  • Western fashion has evolved over centuries. The 16th century in Europe saw apparel sewn with broad shoulders and heavy-cut velvet decorated by intricate lace and fine gold. This was especially seen in the fashion worn by aristocrats. Fast-forward two centuries, and women’s fashion consisted of domed skirts and cinched waists. Western society leaped into the 20th century with short skirts baring leg. As the fashion industry has evolved, designers have perfected new designs and brought into style new fabrics.

    In the 19th century, English settlers brought the textile industry to the U.S. Women in the U.S. during the 1800s had their dresses tailor-made. As the tailors noticed similarities among the women for whom they sewed, they developed patterns. Hence, pattern making was born. Apprentices learned the patterns and how to make them, becoming designers and dressmakers. The fashion industry continued to evolve into the mega-marketing industry it has now become.


  • The fashion industry is made up of clothing manufacturers, designers, models, behind-the-scenes make-up and hair artists, merchandisers and buyers. The single element common among these roles is that these professions are extremely creative. Each professional has been trained in a highly specialized field.

    The fashion industry is important to the culture of each society, as the byproducts of each designer provide a style or identification of the person wearing the clothes. Style is an identity marker, and the fashion industry is essential to transforming individuals solely by what they wear.


  • Aside from designing one-piece wonders for elite clientele such as Hollywood mega stars, which serves as a catalyst for more economical couture designs, the fashion industry clothes us all. Be it famous brand-name jeans or brands marketed solely by retail chain stores, the fashion industry is the source of all the designs, material choices and marketing via models showing off the clothes on Paris, Milan or New York runways.


  • The fashion industry is composed of two primary sectors: ready-to-wear (couture) and haute couture (high fashion). Ready-to-wear makes up the bulk of fashion because it is less expensive than haute couture and far more easily accessible. Designers showing promise might make their mark designing haute couture.


  • The fashion industry spans the globe. Western societies have metamorphosed drastically since earlier centuries. Asian societies, too, like India’s enormous Bollywood film industry, make use of extremely diverse and talented pools of designers who dress every movie’s heroines and heroes.

How to obtain wholesale clothing

The apparel industry is an important sector of the American economy. More than 750,000 people are employed in this field according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. One of the most vital parts of the clothing industry are clothing retailers. Clothing retailers buy and sell clothing to the public. In order to do so they must obtain clothing in great quantities. Buying wholesale clothing at cheaper prices can help the retailer earn a profit.


  1. Determine what type of clothing you want to buy. Wholesale clothing includes many different types of items. You can choose to buy wholesale outwear such as hats and coats. You can also choose to buy dresses, shorts, shirts and skirts. Buy wholesale clothing for a specific season at least three months in advance. Orders for fall items should be placed no later than early June.
  2. Obtain an EIN. An EIN is an Employee Identification Number. The IRS assigns an EIN to people in business for tax purposes. You can get one for free from the IRS website. An EIN identifies you as a member of the apparel industry to other industry members. Some wholesalers will let you purchase from their stores without one. Many will not.
  3. Investigate wholesalers. Wholesale clothing retailers are quite varied. Some wholesalers specialize in a specific area of clothing such as sportswear or formal gowns. Others offer clothing for purchase in many different areas. If you are opening up a clothing store, you may have to work with many different wholesale clothing vendors in order to stock your store.
  4. Buy clothing. Many wholesale clothing vendors typically have both a retail store and a website. Buying from a retail store can be easier if you live near one. If you don’t have a wholesale clothing vendor in your area, you can still order items online. Look closely at the website. A site should have a picture of each item for sale. The site should also include a detailed description of the clothing offered including the type of material used, the sizes offered and the composition of details such as buttons and other fastenings.
  5. Place an order. Orders from retail stores can be delivered to your door if you don’t have a truck for larger items. Wholesale clothing orders can also be shipped to your address from a website. Allow at least a week for delivery.

Cafe Industry Statistics

Café establishments primarily sell refreshment drinks, snacks and light meals, with coffee being their flagship product. These businesses must employ innovative strategies, such as diversification of menu offerings, to increase sales and remain competitive. The industry’s growth prospects are dictated by issues such as availability of disposable income in households and changes in customers’ preferences for meals and drinks.

Market Trends

  • Cafés generate much of their revenues from coffee, a product that accounted for more than 83 percent of hot beverage sales in 2012, according to the Small Business Development Center Network. Tea and other nonalcoholic drinks are also favorites among café customers. However, snacks and light meals contribute significantly toward the overall revenues of cafes.

Industry Performance

  • The coffee and snack shops industry is a $30 billion market that grew at average annual rates of 2.7 percent between 2009 and 2013, according to a report the IBISWorld website in 2014. This shows the industry grew at steady rates through those years, despite the negative impact of the recession that rocked the economy from 2008 to 2010.

The Competitive Landscape

  • Independently owned cafes can thrive, provided the owners correctly identify their niches and avoid direct competition with the big brand name stores. According to Business Valuation Marketing, the top 50 coffee shop companies–think Starbucks–have captured around 70% of the U.S. market. Small companies can compete by offering products the larger competitors don’t provide. For example, cafes offering individually brewed coffee in exotic flavors can generate a large following among coffee enthusiasts.