This is default featured slide 1 title

The Benefits of the Pharmaceutical Industry

The pharmaceutical industry has been an easy target for critics over the years. There is a perception that “Big Pharma” is strictly out for profit and that pharmaceutical companies will stop at nothing to line the pockets of their shareholders. The reality is this: Many of these drugs are saving lives and helping people live happier, healthier lives.

Better Health Outcomes

  • According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the pharmaceutical industry develops and produces products that help treat a variety of diseases, saving millions of lives and helping people suffering from diseases and illnesses to recover and lead more productive lives. The pharmaceutical industry develops drugs that treat every type of condition imaginable, such as influenza, sexually transmitted diseases, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hepatitis, Parkinson's disease and cancer, to name a few. Many of these are devastating and life-altering diseases, and these products help keep patients alive longer.


  • While some may view the cost of pharmaceutical drugs as a negative aspect of the industry, you can also see cost as a benefit. According to the Pharmaceutcial Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), the market share of generic pharmaceuticals was between 42 and 58 percent in 2006. What this means is generic drugs are increasingly available to patients, which drives down costs. Most reports in the media discuss the high cost of drugs and lack of access for certain patients, but the reality is that drugs today are cheaper and more accessible than ever before due to increased competition in the marketplace. Additionally, economic development in countries like India and China are driving down global prices for pharmaceutical products even more.

Economic Benefits

  • Pharmaceutical companies employed nearly 300,000 people in the United States in 2008, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and nearly 87 percent of the companies in the pharmaceutical industry employed more than 100 workers in 2008. The tax benefits to the United States are substantial as well. Pfizer alone posted $44 billion worth of revenue in 2008, according to Contract Pharma. The economic climate impacts the pharmaceutical industry, but profitable companies result in more taxable revenue for the U.S. People may criticize this amount of profit from one company, but consider this: The underlying goal of every single business is to make money. People single out pharmaceutical companies for making profits, but it's important to remember that they also create products that save millions of lives.

Careers in the Pharmaceutical Industry

The pharmaceutical industry is one of the most desirable to work for worldwide. There are many reasons for this, but it is principally due to the tremendous benefits and prestige that these companies offer. Research technicians, analysts of every variety, engineers, nurses, doctors, phlebotomists, scientists, biologists, chemists, medical ethicists, microbiologists, geneticists and others such as quality control experts, factory workers and field personnel fill out the careers in this industry.

General Qualifications

  • Due to the complexity and the management of corporate proprietary processes, positions in this industry are highly valued. Higher levels of education are the norm in this industry. Research technicians are one of these positions because they conduct experiments under the watchful eyes of the lead scientist. Bachelors’ degrees are usually the minimum educational requirement, with masters and doctorate degrees preferred in the specialty areas. Workers on the factory floor on the other hand can get by with a high school diploma or General Equivalency Diploma and a certificate of ability to work with forklifts, as an example.
    Educational Background

The Scientist

  • If scientific research is your qualification, the reasons for joining a pharmaceutical company (pharma) may lie in the grand flexibility of conducting various research models or focusing on one thread of a larger spool, such as dedicating years to finding a process that may one day cure a disease.

    After a discovery is found, the process is passed along to the other members of the research team such as the biotechnologist and on to others as well to find any variant that may harm or improve the quality of the newly discovered development or culture.

    Scientist at Work

Some Statistics

  • In 2006, pharma and other medical manufacturing provided over 290,000 positions. Most in-facility positions are located Pennsylvania, New York, Illinois, California, Texas, New Jersey, Indiana, North Carolina and Puerto Rico according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, there should be a 23.7 increase in all positions by the year 2016. Most workers in the industry have a minimum of a bachelor degree and there are twice as many individuals with degrees as in any other industry.

Pharmaceutical Sales

  • For persons with virtually any type of sales experience, the top of the mountain would be pharmaceutical sales. The benefits are simply outstanding and include a nice car with fun toys and two credit cards, one for gasoline and the other for entertaining customers, which happen to be physicians. The main responsibility is to convince the physician that the product you have works better than the product from the competitor. Physicians are showered with pens, cups, promotional samples, prescription forms and other materials that bear the product’s name and logo.

    Success in the ability to convince physicians to prescribe a particular product is tracked by how much of the product is sold and/or ordered from the pharmacies in the zip code during a given time, which happens to be in the assigned territory.

The Final Word

  • The pharmaceutical industry is a challenging and rewarding place to work, but be aware of companies that make false claims about preparing people to enter the industry by offering certificates of completion and/or training of some sort. Unless a company is recruiting right from the university, chances are that they want people with industry experience or verifiable success in advertising sales. The reason for this is simple: if success is proven in the advertising industry, then you know first hand what rejection is. In pharma sales, you will receive plenty of rejection.

Fashion Industry & How it Works

The fashion industry is a thriving industry, creating the billions of dresses, suits and other clothing and accessories consumers purchase. The fashion industry works in the following way: The process for creating ready-to-wear or haute couture clothing starts with fashion market research and trend forecasting. Designers work to create the apparel drafting. After the design has been approved by the designer, apparel production begins. Once the product is complete, fashion marketing and fashion buying come into play. The process ends with fashion merchandising retail. The product is seen in department stores and high-end boutiques.


  • Western fashion has evolved over centuries. The 16th century in Europe saw apparel sewn with broad shoulders and heavy-cut velvet decorated by intricate lace and fine gold. This was especially seen in the fashion worn by aristocrats. Fast-forward two centuries, and women’s fashion consisted of domed skirts and cinched waists. Western society leaped into the 20th century with short skirts baring leg. As the fashion industry has evolved, designers have perfected new designs and brought into style new fabrics.

    In the 19th century, English settlers brought the textile industry to the U.S. Women in the U.S. during the 1800s had their dresses tailor-made. As the tailors noticed similarities among the women for whom they sewed, they developed patterns. Hence, pattern making was born. Apprentices learned the patterns and how to make them, becoming designers and dressmakers. The fashion industry continued to evolve into the mega-marketing industry it has now become.


  • The fashion industry is made up of clothing manufacturers, designers, models, behind-the-scenes make-up and hair artists, merchandisers and buyers. The single element common among these roles is that these professions are extremely creative. Each professional has been trained in a highly specialized field.

    The fashion industry is important to the culture of each society, as the byproducts of each designer provide a style or identification of the person wearing the clothes. Style is an identity marker, and the fashion industry is essential to transforming individuals solely by what they wear.


  • Aside from designing one-piece wonders for elite clientele such as Hollywood mega stars, which serves as a catalyst for more economical couture designs, the fashion industry clothes us all. Be it famous brand-name jeans or brands marketed solely by retail chain stores, the fashion industry is the source of all the designs, material choices and marketing via models showing off the clothes on Paris, Milan or New York runways.


  • The fashion industry is composed of two primary sectors: ready-to-wear (couture) and haute couture (high fashion). Ready-to-wear makes up the bulk of fashion because it is less expensive than haute couture and far more easily accessible. Designers showing promise might make their mark designing haute couture.


  • The fashion industry spans the globe. Western societies have metamorphosed drastically since earlier centuries. Asian societies, too, like India’s enormous Bollywood film industry, make use of extremely diverse and talented pools of designers who dress every movie’s heroines and heroes.

How to obtain wholesale clothing

The apparel industry is an important sector of the American economy. More than 750,000 people are employed in this field according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. One of the most vital parts of the clothing industry are clothing retailers. Clothing retailers buy and sell clothing to the public. In order to do so they must obtain clothing in great quantities. Buying wholesale clothing at cheaper prices can help the retailer earn a profit.


  1. Determine what type of clothing you want to buy. Wholesale clothing includes many different types of items. You can choose to buy wholesale outwear such as hats and coats. You can also choose to buy dresses, shorts, shirts and skirts. Buy wholesale clothing for a specific season at least three months in advance. Orders for fall items should be placed no later than early June.
  2. Obtain an EIN. An EIN is an Employee Identification Number. The IRS assigns an EIN to people in business for tax purposes. You can get one for free from the IRS website. An EIN identifies you as a member of the apparel industry to other industry members. Some wholesalers will let you purchase from their stores without one. Many will not.
  3. Investigate wholesalers. Wholesale clothing retailers are quite varied. Some wholesalers specialize in a specific area of clothing such as sportswear or formal gowns. Others offer clothing for purchase in many different areas. If you are opening up a clothing store, you may have to work with many different wholesale clothing vendors in order to stock your store.
  4. Buy clothing. Many wholesale clothing vendors typically have both a retail store and a website. Buying from a retail store can be easier if you live near one. If you don’t have a wholesale clothing vendor in your area, you can still order items online. Look closely at the website. A site should have a picture of each item for sale. The site should also include a detailed description of the clothing offered including the type of material used, the sizes offered and the composition of details such as buttons and other fastenings.
  5. Place an order. Orders from retail stores can be delivered to your door if you don’t have a truck for larger items. Wholesale clothing orders can also be shipped to your address from a website. Allow at least a week for delivery.

Cafe Industry Statistics

Café establishments primarily sell refreshment drinks, snacks and light meals, with coffee being their flagship product. These businesses must employ innovative strategies, such as diversification of menu offerings, to increase sales and remain competitive. The industry’s growth prospects are dictated by issues such as availability of disposable income in households and changes in customers’ preferences for meals and drinks.

Market Trends

  • Cafés generate much of their revenues from coffee, a product that accounted for more than 83 percent of hot beverage sales in 2012, according to the Small Business Development Center Network. Tea and other nonalcoholic drinks are also favorites among café customers. However, snacks and light meals contribute significantly toward the overall revenues of cafes.

Industry Performance

  • The coffee and snack shops industry is a $30 billion market that grew at average annual rates of 2.7 percent between 2009 and 2013, according to a report the IBISWorld website in 2014. This shows the industry grew at steady rates through those years, despite the negative impact of the recession that rocked the economy from 2008 to 2010.

The Competitive Landscape

  • Independently owned cafes can thrive, provided the owners correctly identify their niches and avoid direct competition with the big brand name stores. According to Business Valuation Marketing, the top 50 coffee shop companies–think Starbucks–have captured around 70% of the U.S. market. Small companies can compete by offering products the larger competitors don’t provide. For example, cafes offering individually brewed coffee in exotic flavors can generate a large following among coffee enthusiasts.

Steel Erector Job Description

Steel erectors, also known as iron workers, construct the frames of tall structures, including skyscrapers, hospitals, parking garages, air traffic control towers, manufacturing plants and universities. They perform a range of services from shear stud or joint installation to building renovation to metal decking. Steel erectors either control derricks and cranes, or direct crane operators, in transporting buckets of concrete, reinforcement bars, structural steel components and other necessary materials to their position on the building.

Learning the Job

  • Steel erectors usually need a minimum of a high school diploma and a broad understanding of mechanics, design and engineering. Most complete three or four years of an apprenticeship to learn the tricks of the trade. Eligibility differs by the organization, but apprenticeships generally require candidates to be physically able to handle the work, to be a minimum of 18 years old and to pass a substance abuse screening. Steel erectors can’t be afraid of heights, and they must have excellent depth perception, balance and physical strength.

Covering the Details

  • For each new project, steel erectors collaborate with their team to create construction and safety plans, evaluate location-specific hazards, review drawings in detail and determine procedures for welding and crane logistics. Steel erectors cut various materials for installation and weld or use bolts to connect beams, girders and columns to other structural pieces. Depending on the specifications of the project, they may install wires, ladders, gauges, flanges, valves, sealing strips or insulated materials.

Safety and Stability

  • Steel erectors are often responsible for putting together and breaking down temporary shelters and similar equipment that’s used during the construction process. They also prepare support and safety equipment around work sites. According to the Occupational Safety & Health Administration, steel erectors are constantly on narrow working surfaces that are several levels above the ground. OSHA notes that many erectors start working at the top of the structure, where anchor points higher than foot level tend to be unavailable or limited.

Advancement and Employment

  • According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, most steel erectors get certified by the American Welding Society. (See Reference 1: How to Become One tab; Licenses, Certifications and Registrations) It reports that those with certification in crane signaling, rigging and welding may receive higher pay than workers without credentials. (See Reference 1: How to Become One tab; Licenses, Certifications and Registrations) The BLS classifies steel erectors under the broader category of structural iron and steel workers, who earned an average annual income of $51,590, as of May 2013. (see Reference 6) It reports that employment opportunities are expected to increase 22 percent between 2012 and 2022, which is must faster than the average of all occupations at 11 percent. (See Reference 1: Job Outlook tab; paragraph 1)

Financial Planning & Analysis Job Description

The financial planning and analysis department within a corporation is responsible for preparing the annual plan and long-range or five-year plan. Financial planning and analysis professionals also prepare monthly, quarterly and annual management reports that compare actual results to forecasts. This department is a segment of the finance division of a company, and usually reports to the chief financial officer. The financial planning and analysis team also assists with the monthly accounting close, making certain journal entries are prepared correctly and on time.


Education and Training

  • Financial analysts are expected to have, at minimum, a Bachelor of Science degree in finance or accounting. Having a Master of Business Administration degree is highly desirable, particularly for career advancement. Some companies require that analysts have a Certified Public Aaccountant designation to ensure they understand “Generally Accepted Accounting Principles” and apply these principles to the reports they prepare.


  • Financial planning and analysis professionals must have a thorough understanding of advanced financial analysis techniques using spreadsheet software, as well as any specialized financial forecasting software their company may have. They must be able to design reports that present both actual and budget data in a concise manner for use by top management in decision making. They are required to communicate well, both orally and in writing, as they are asked to make presentations to upper management.


  • Senior management depends on information and recommendations provided by the financial planning and analysis department to make critical decisions such as those regarding multimillion dollar capital expenditures and mergers and acquisitions. If the information the analysts supply is flawed, there can be significant negative financial consequences for the company as a whole. Success in this career depends on being able to interpret data and draw conclusions, not just to compile numbers.


  • Finance planning and analysis can be a high-pressure career because, during the planning cycle, there are tight deadlines that must be met. The financial reports that analysts prepare can involve presenting negative news to senior executives, who may challenge the accuracy of their reports. They are often given special analysis projects, such as mergers and acquisitions, that must be completed under extremely tight time frames and often with insufficient or limited data.


  • Because the financial planning and analysis expert interfaces with all departments of the company during the planning process, this career can be a learning experience to gain an understanding of how other departments, such as marketing or purchasing, are managed. This knowledge can help financial analysts advance into a senior management role later in their careers. It can also be a stepping stone to becoming chief financial officer of the company, because the financial planning and analysis department is heavily involved with the day-to-day operations of the accounting department. Financial planning and analysis professionals, even junior analysts, are asked to prepare reports or make presentation to top executives, so this career can help young professionals develop poise and self-confidence.


Properties of Hardened Steel
Hardened steel is a type of medium to hard plain carbon steel that has undergone heat treatment, quenching and further reheating. Components made of hardened steel have a hard exterior casing and a robust core, and include arbors, axles, link components, driving pinions, camshafts and cardan joints. Application areas of components made from hardened steel include transportation, energy generation and general mechanical engineering. Types of hardened steel include Z60CDV14, Sandvic 12C27, CPM440V and ATS34.
  • Hardened steel is resistant to wear, rough usage, high-impact pressure and shock. It is used to make power shovels, steel balls, nozzles, surgical instruments, crushers and plates for rock-processing. Steel with a sufficient amount of chromium that undergoes heat treatment hardens to form chromium carbide particles, which increase the wear resistance of the steel alloy. Hardened steels with a greater concentration of carbon contain a higher amount of chromium carbide and exhibit enhanced wear-resistance properties.

Corrosion Resistance

  • According to “Surface Engineering for Corrosion and Wear Resistance,” corrosion costs the U.S. billions of dollars annually by affecting materials and metallic surfaces used in industries. Hardened steel is resistant to corrosive chemical environments, potable water and atmospheric corrosion. Hardened steel is applied with corrosion-resistant coating to further enhance its resistive properties.

Abrasion Resistance

  • Hardened steel offers exceptional resistance to severe sliding abrasion and is able to withstand drilling and punching. Its abrasion-resistant properties enable hardened steel to be used in aggregates quarries and hard-rock mining, and to make conveyors, chutes, highway truck beds, crushers, hoppers and troughs.


  • According to “Steel Heat Treatment: Equipment and Process Design,” the durability of heat-treated hardened steel is at least twice that of untreated and oil-treated steel. Hardened steel is used to make knives, the optimal hardness of which depends upon the proportions of carbon, manganese and chromium. Examples of hardened steels used in knife-making include the 154 CM (chromium 14 percent, manganese 0.5 percent and carbon 1.05 percent); 420HC (chromium 13.5 percent, manganese 0.35 to 0.9 percent and carbon 0.5 to 0.7 percent); and ATS34 (chromium 14 percent, manganese 0.4 percent and carbon 1.05 percent). Knives made from these hard steels last longer than those made from regular soft to medium steels.

Definition of Research Analyst


A research analyst is a trained professional who analyzes information to solve problems, improve decision-making methods and the operations of an organization or workers. Research analysts use engineering and scientific methods like mathematical models and statistics to find answers to questions and recommend a course of action.
Research analysts work in many industries and fields of study, although the term is often used for business research analysts, who provide expert analysis and advice in investment choices for high net-worth people and organizations.


  • Research analysts can find employment in the military, and the science, health, transportation, engineering, software development and market analysis industries. These analysts are experts in a field and provide insight into solving problems and improving operations.


  • Research analysts need good quantitative and computer skills. A background in advanced mathematics is important for people working in science and statistical jobs. A doctorate or master’s degree is needed, though some entry-level positions require only a bachelor’s degree.


  • Research analysts use analytical techniques to break down problems into smaller, basic units, using methods from mathematics, science and engineering. Analysts ask questions, carry out independent research and examine the results in search of a pattern or solution to the problem. Analytical techniques used by research analysts include, among others, data mining, computer modeling and simulations.


  • Research analysts are often required to predict outcomes of various scenarios. These scenarios could include anything from the way bacteria reacts to an antibiotic to the behavior of the stock market if the interest rate rises. Well-designed forecasts help managers make better decisions and improve performance.


  • Research analysts must understand the theory and principles governing a specific subject or industry. Creative thinking and seeing the big picture of a task or problem are helpful tools.

How Does the Publishing Industry Work?


  • The publishing industry is a huge field made up of a variety of venues. Newspapers, magazines, greeting cards, calendars, directories and books are some of the publications within the field. In spite of this vast array, the industry itself is primarily owned by a number of large corporations, many of which own multiple publications. Magazine and book publishers, in particular, are oftentimes purchased in clusters by one company.

    Over half of book publishers’ inventory is made up of scientific, technical and professional titles as these are the most marketable. The remainder is comprised of paperbacks, mail order, reference books and book club titles. Business-to-business and trade-consumer magazines are the two types of magazine publishers within the industry. These vary in size and scope depending on the type of financial backing in place.


  • Regardless of the type of publication, there are only so many ways to bring a publication to press. As such, most publications follow the same procedures within their publishing process. Gathering content is the first order of business across the board. This task is typically handled by an editorial department, which determines what kinds of material to include. From there, staff writers, photographers and artists prepare the content.

    Once editorial staff gather and review the needed content, the next step is determining how to design or lay out the finished product. Newspapers and magazines follow a predetermined layout, allotting so much space for advertisements, content and images. Book publishers may have a predetermined format; however, most book orders are customized.

    As far as revenue generation goes, book, greeting card and calendar publications profit from product sales, whereas magazine, newspaper and directory publications make the bulk of their profit from advertising revenue. This involves local or nationally based businesses purchasing ad space within a publication to get more exposure for their products.

Sales & Marketing

  • Meeting market demands and expanding an existing market base are essential functions within the publishing industry. The larger publications typically have publicity, marketing or circulation departments set up to handle marketing and sales. Demographic data and market trends are studied in order to be able to present the publication in the best possible light.

    The actual distribution of a publication can be carried out in a number of ways depending on delivery schedules, intermediary needs and product type. Book publishers typically ship to distribution warehouses or directly to retailers. Because newspapers are delivered on a frequent basis, the number of distribution outlets can vary depending on the size of the company. Distribution warehouses, newsstands and individual carriers may all play a part in getting the publication to the customer.

Corporate Banker Job Description

The control and ownership of incorporated companies is distributed to many joint owners called shareholders. While this structure allows certain advantages, it also introduces much complexity. Specialized bankers deal with the complicated and unique needs of corporate finance. Also called “investment bankers,” corporate bankers also perform tasks similar to personal bankers.

Corporate bankers, or investment bankers, attend to the special needs of corporations.

Saving and Lending

  • Like individuals, corporations use credit and money. Companies need to keep cash on hand to meet immediate needs like payroll; thus, they maintain accounts that function much like any other savings or checking account, though on a much larger scale than most individuals. For some projects, loans are needed and the government recognizes corporations as “legal persons,” able to obtain credit. Corporate bankers operate much like personal bankers or loan officers in these capacities.


  • Because corporations often hold large amounts of money, for which they have no immediate need, they often seek to put this money to work for them and yield more interest. To this end, investment bankers advise or act as brokers for various financial instruments. The bankers may recommend stocks, bonds, futures or many other investment vehicles. It depends upon such factors as the return the corporation desires, when it will need the money back and the degree of risk it is willing to accept.

Stocks and Bonds

  • One of the most advantageous aspects of the corporate structure is the ability to raise funds by issuing bonds (debt instruments) and common stock (equity instruments). Conceptually, these activities are simple. The company sells bonds to investors, then issues a regular payment to the bondholders until the bond matures. Upon maturity, the original sale price of the bond is refunded to the bondholder. Stock is sold to the public, which gives buyers partial company ownership and control. Each share of stock entitles the holder to an equal share of company profits and one vote to be used in each issue the board of directors puts up for a vote. While these may not seem terribly complicated, the laws and regulations surrounding the issue and trading of securities requires extensive specialized knowledge.


  • Investment banks vary in size; thus, there is some variation in the education standards of applicants. The largest and most prestigious institutions may demand an MBA from an elite university; the financial sector employs workers with terminal degrees in their disciplines, paying a premium for their credentials and experience. However, smaller establishments, or the more junior positions within the larger ones, may only require a bachelor’s degree. Finance and economics are the most desirable majors.

Conditions and Salary

  • Bankers almost invariably work indoors, in comfortable conditions. Most time is spent either on the telephone; in meetings; or on a computer, doing research or analysis. The more prestigious and well-paid positions have comparably less mundane activities. An investment banker’s salary is ill-spent on filing or making coffee, when support staff can do these tasks for a fraction of the cost to the firm. Despite the physical ease and status of the position, the banker does have the challenges of long, irregular hours and considerable stress. Pay is generally commensurate with the size of the company and the affluence of its clients.



Key Success Factors in the Banking Industry

Banking is the ultimate expression of using other people’s money to produce profitable transactions. Banks use depositor’s checking and savings accounts to fund loans made at a negotiated interest rate. The depositor funds are paid a certain interest rate and the loans are charged a higher interest rate. The difference between the two is the bank’s profit. Banks also charge fees for certain services and have other profit-generating efforts but in the end the bank does it all with money is does not own and holds in trust for the many people doing their daily banking with the institution.


  • Loaning money responsibly and prudently is one of a bank’s foremost endeavors. Successful loan money based on established criteria and will only waver when extraordinary circumstances warrant making an exception.As with every banking function, the bank is using other people’s money and must be perform with prudence and skepticism whenever considering lending for whatever reason. Customers with established track records and long-standing relations with the bank may be able to circumvent lending processes to some degree but this only comes after years of successful banking transactions.Banks must also be prudent in regards to deposits. Paying dividends on savings or checking must be a carefully balanced business decision. Payments must be kept competitive to keep a depositor’s business but extravagance can lead to diminished bank profits. Successful banks always find the right balance.


  • Banking is a business and as such must always search for new customers and expand market share. A successful bank will market services, convenience and financial advantages. Banks resting on decades-old laurels will see an aging customer base not invigorated with new customers and more importantly new money.Bank marketing efforts is regulated by federal and state agencies and monitors just what a bank can and cannot say. A successful bank, however, will work within those regulations to see deposits, reputable lending and market share constantly increase.

Banking Practices

  • Banking practices are industry standards such as how the bank handles cash, deposits, withdrawals, payments and financial records. The successful bank will always have statements accurate to the penny and on schedule. Although no bank is perfect, the successful bank has a reputation for fewer mistakes and satisfied customers. Vigilant management, conscientious employees and always improving in areas of technology and customer service keeps successful banks in the lead.

How to Get a Job in the Hospitality Industry

Jobs in finance, marketing and sales are available in the hospitality field. Traditionally, the industry requires a love for helping people effectively in various circumstances. Displaying an affable demeanor is still fundamental to landing the desired hospitality job.


  1. Find a niche within the hospitality industry. Hotel concierge, travel agent and restaurant host are just a few examples. Figure out the one most suitable to you by selecting your favorite things to do. For instance, do you enjoy talking to customers? A hotel concierge position may be a good fit.
  2. Take the time to network. Attend an event hosted at the venue where you desire to work. Become acquainted with staff and ask questions about what the company is looking for within your niche.
  3. Build a custom resume for each job application/interview. Find out who is the hiring manager and write a letter to them with your resume. This will show attention to detail and initiative. These are sought-after qualities of a hospitality worker.
  4. Practice showing your skills by being hospitable anywhere you go. A hiring manager may see your ability during the interview and select you for the position right away.
  5. Dress appropriately for the position you are applying for. If the job is at a beach, it may be more appropriate to wear casual, but neat, clothes. Display what the company is looking for before they hire you.

Define Company Analysis

Company analysis, or corporate analysis, refers to actions undertaken for an in-depth evaluation and to gain an understanding of a particular company’s past performance and future prospects. A thorough company analysis will focus on all aspects of the corporate entity, including management structure and expertise, finances, growth prospects, profitability, market share and intangible factors such as goodwill in the market and brand image. Results of the analysis are used in reaching business decisions by external parties, such as whether or not to invest in or go into a partnership with the analyzed company.

Subsections of Analysis

  • The overall corporate quality of a company can be evaluated by studying the business’s core elements, functions and operations. For example, a company may manufacture products of impeccable quality but have a disreputable customer service history. As such, a total company analysis may be broken down into smaller, related analyses of different aspects of the company. When all the reports from the various analysis are used together, the big picture of the corporation’s health is formed.

Internal Analysis

  • When analysis is conducted internally by a business’s management, the results can help in identifying problems and in remedying a situation. Even if a business seems to be performing well, a company analysis sometimes identifies practices and processes that may be tweaked to enhance performance. When performance is more efficient, its associated costs go down and the profit margins go up. In large companies with completely separated departments, a company analysis may prove that processes currently practiced in one department may work equally well in another department. A timely conducted analysis may also inspire innovation to gain market share.

External Analysis

  • When used by external parties, a company analysis answers the questions that an investor may have about the company. Investors may make use of a SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity, threat) analysis to better understand the company’s current position in its industry, probable position in the near and long-term future and to make educated decisions about engaging in business with the company. SWOT analysis may be particularly helpful when reviewing businesses operating in markets that are demographically, culturally and economically different.

Ratio Analysis

  • Ratio analysis, also known as fundamental analysis, is an evaluation of a company’s financial statements and is an indicator of the company’s past performance and future direction. Analysts may use several different ratios to form a comprehensive picture of the corporation’s financial situation; different groups of ratios aim to evaluate different aspects of a company’s finances, including liquidity, profitability and balance sheet items. Financial ratios may be formed using information for the same company over a number of years for an indication of trend and direction, or using financial data from different companies for a comparison with competitors.
  • Frequency

    • Well-managed companies tend to conduct an internal company analysis on a regular basis, to keep abreast of changes affecting the business’s performance. Managers may present reports of the analysis to shareholders annually, or to attract business prospects. Companies that tend to conduct routine analysis tend to be more in touch with the different contextual factors affecting the business and are more dynamic and responsive to market forces.

Advancement Opportunities for Fashion Designing

Fashion design is the creative force of the fashion industry. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), job growth for fashion designing is expected to grow one percent for the 10 year period from 2008 to 2018. Typically design companies look to hire individuals with Bachelors degree in a fashion design program. Even though advancement opportunities exist, few employment opportunities are expected outside of mass-market clothing design companies.

Design Assistant

  • Design Assistant is an entry level fashion design opportunity that is more administrative than creative, with duties including assisting the design team with fashion illustration and storyboard layout. Many college graduates start at this level. Typically after six months working as a design assistant the next advancement opportunity is an assistant designer position.

Assistant Designer

  • Assistant designers are similar to design assistants, however the assistant designer gets more hands on production experience with pattern making and assisting with sample garment construction. Typically after spending three or more years as an assistant designer you can advance to an associate designer or technical designer position.

Associate Designer

  • The associate designer participates in designing garments for the seasonal collections and works closely with the head designer for creative input and design approval. With five or more years experience as an associate designer, you can seek out a position as a head designer.

Technical Designer

  • According to, technical designers are responsible for making sure the fashion designer’s sketch can be made into a wearable garment by overseeing the production side of creating a fashion line. As with the associate designer you will need at least five years experience as a technical designer to advance to head designer.

Head Designer

  • The head designer is responsible for the fashion collections produced each season regardless if the collections are failures or successes. Typically a minimum of five years work experience as an associate designer or technical designer is needed to progress to this level; however, it is common for a design firm to require seven to 10 years experience.


  • The years of experience you have, job location and employer are the main factors which determine what salary you make at each level. Fashion designing salaries can be lower than $32,150 (entry level positions) according to the BLS or as high as $157,000 or more a year for head designer positions.

Uses of 1026 Steel

American Iron and Steel Institute grade 1026 steel is a low carbon or mild steel with a very simple chemical composition. The steel can have a carbon content of up to .28 percent and still qualify as grade 1026 steel according to AISI standards. The carbon content is typically lower than this, however. The steel is relatively inexpensive to produce because it has a comparatively simple composition. Many industries use AISI 1026 steel, as it is easily welded, machined and forged.


  • The American Iron and Steel Institute standard states that 1026 steel must have a carbon content of between .22 and .28 percent, a manganese content of between .60 and .90 percent, a phosphorus content less than .04 percent and a sulfur content less than .05 percent.

Shop Steel

  • AISI 1026 has a simple chemical structure and is easy to weld using most modern welding processes such as MIG and TIG welding. Because of this, 1026 sometimes sees use as general shop steel for various fabrication products. The bar form of 1026 sees use as a structural material, and 1026 bar stock is often used to build frames or as a base material. Round stock 1026 serves to anchors items in the ground. Bird feeder hangers and garden hooks are often made from 1026 and other mild steels.


  • AISI 1026 steel sees use in the production of tubing of various sizes. A coating of oil after production reduces the chances of rust forming. Galvanization will also prevent rust. AISI 1026 tubing serves as a structural material and for short-term plumbing. However, since it is susceptible to corrosion, 1026 tubing is never a long-term plumbing solution.

Parts and Fasteners

  • AISI 1026 is easily shaped in its cold state using lathes, mills and other tools. Because of these properties, the automotive and construction industries use1026 to produce various steel parts ranging from bolts and fasteners to automobile exhausts. However, since it does not respond to heat treatment because of a lack of carbon, 1026 has some limitations. Items made from 1026 will remain relatively soft. This means 1026 is not suitable to make parts that undergo high levels of stress or require sharpening. The steel bends easily and does not hold an edge.

Factors Affecting the Growth of Fast Food Companies

Countless factors may affect the success of a fast food restaurant. Everything from the specific type of establishment to the size of the building and local community demographics can have a dramatic effect on a fast food establishment. Significant research and effort may be required to strengthen the business and increase profits.

More Than Just Burgers

  • Many different types of fast food establishments exist, each one with a niche in the marketplace. These restaurants cater to the public’s desire for different types of food. The most common type of fast food restaurants serve beef burgers and french fries. Other establishments serve only fish, chicken or similarly popular meals. Still, other niche restaurants cater to those who want only one type of food in varying degrees of presentation.

Avoiding Stiff Competition

  • The proximity of one fast food restaurant to others may have an effect on its success. If another establishment that serves identical meals is within a close range, the result will be increased competition and potentially lower gross sales. A restaurant that is near a similar one must attempt to draw customers from the competition with promises of additional benefits, features and lower prices. Obviously the highest chances of success exist when there are no other fast food restaurants close by.

Attracting a Large Customer Base, Literally

  • A fast food restaurant’s size may have significant effect on its success. Larger buildings can serve more customers at one time. Providing customers with appropriate seating in a comfortable environment increases the likelihood that they will stay for longer periods during meals, thereby increasing the chances that additional products, like desserts, may be purchased. Additionally, larger buildings allow for a more significant surface area for outdoor advertising. Signs, banners and other creative marketing methods can be applied to the exterior of the building, resulting in dramatically higher exposure to passersby.

Location, Location, Location

  • Demographics may be the most significant factors affecting the success of a fast food restaurant. Restaurant owners should examine the ratios of male to female, average income, education levels and other essential characteristics of the people living nearby. Advertising and marketing can be tailored to take advantage of the demographics information. Demographic information can be effectively used in drawing the local residents to the fast food restaurant.

What’s In a Name

  • Something to consider is that many fast food restaurants may have certain measures for success based simply on their major trademarked names. Think McDonald’s, Burger King and Wendy’s and their quality management that lends itself to their financial success. Those establishments that are the nation’s leading fast food chains have a chance at attracting a number of customers merely because of familiarity and convenience. Predictability concerning products and prices often appeals to a large number of people.

How to Conduct an Industry Analysis

Entering a new industry can bring huge benefits to an organization or it can end in complete disaster — an industry analysis can help you to create the former possibility and to avoid the latter. An industry analysis will give you an indication of how friendly a particular industry is to new business. There are a variety of factors that should be measured, but the easiest way of doing this is by organizing the factors in a SWOT analysis. A SWOT analysis measures the specific strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that exist in a particular industry. Following a few basic steps will allow you to easily perform your own industry analysis using this method.


  1. Write down all of the strengths that currently exist for the industry you are analyzing. A strength is anything that is beneficial about the industry. An example of a strength would be the potential for long-term growth. Don’t focus on your company, focus on the industry you are analyzing.
  2. Write down a list of all the industry’s weaknesses. For example, a weakness might be that the industry is highly competitive or volatile. Consider anything that would be disadvantageous about entering this industry.
  3. Write down a list of all the opportunities in the industry. For example, are there many untapped markets for the industry or opportunities for technological breakthroughs? List any opportunities in the industry that may be exploited in the future.
  4. Write down a list of all the threats to the industry. For example, a threat to the oil industry could be environmental legislation, or a threat to the television industry could be Internet entertainment programming. A threat is anything that has the potential to disrupt or damage an industry.
  5. Analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats you have just laid out. What you want to determine is if the strengths and opportunities are greater than the weaknesses and threats. This is a difficult process. You should consider the number in each category, but you should try to understand the impact of each category overall.

Director of Finance Job Description

Directors of finance are responsible for the finance activities of their assigned division or divisions. Finance directors work for corporations, consulting firms and nonprofit agencies. The Bureau of Labor Statistics says, “Employment growth for financial managers is expected is to be about as fast as the average for all occupations. However, applicants will likely face strong competition for jobs. Those with a masters degree and a certification will have the best opportunities.”


  • Finance director titles are used in both accounting and finance departments. However, they are responsible for compliance and regulatory issues pertaining to the financing activities of their organizations. The director of finance is involved with all financing sources for his assigned divisions. This includes activities related to stock and corporate bond activity, equity investors and all non-traditional financing sources.

Subject Matter Expert

  • The director of finance is the expert on compliance and regulatory issues related to finance. She will consult with counsel and executive leadership on proper financing activities and all necessary and required disclosures. The director of finance is responsible for adherence to the corporate finance policies, and reports any deviation to her direct supervisor. Most directors of finance report to the chief financial officer or the chief accounting officer.


  • Finance directors are responsible for all corporate forecasting. This includes sales and revenue forecasts as well as competitor forecasts. Finance directors build forecast models and metrics to accurately predict the outcome of a potential or proposed business transaction. These transactions may include expansions, mergers, acquisitions, capital projects or divestitures. These forecasts are usually developed for executive level leadership.

Strategic Planning

  • Strategic planning is a critical responsibility of directors of finance. Many capital expenditures, mergers and acquisitions and major expansions take months or years to plan. Strategic planning is vital in making these projects successful. Pro forma financial statements, projections and success metrics are all required for project approval. Planning for projects of this magnitude requires financial professionals with extensive education and work experience.

Investment Activities

  • Directors of finance are responsible for some or all investment activities. Financing activity varies greatly depending on the size of a company, but all companies have some degree of investment activity. These investments could be as simple as a money market account or simple interest-bearing account. However, in large companies, investments may include corporate securities, annuities and taking stakes directly in other companies.

Management and Mentoring

  • The finance director manages the finance department employees. This includes the analysts, clerks and statisticians. The director of finance is responsible for directing the staff’s activity and for assigning workload. The director of finance assists the recruiting department with finance staffing issues. Directors of finance must be solid managers and leaders. They are responsible for developing and mentoring their subordinates.


Dimensions of Market Analysis

A market analysis is included in a strategic plan to identify a company’s position and potential. It sets the foundation for a business, organization and marketing strategy. Without a thorough market analysis, a company may not understand how current conditions may affect profitability. These conditions can be any internal or external factor influencing future investments. Dimensions of market analysis include environmental issues, competitive positioning, target audience behaviors and any related factor influencing the success of the organization.

Environmental Analysis

  • Political agendas, social influences and local economy are environmental factors that are included in a market analysis. These make up a subdivision of external issues, or macro-environmental factors. Micro-environmental factors deal with an organization’s internal position. Examples of micro-environmental factors include the number of employees, department structure, supplies, competencies and budget. Any force that can impact the company is considered an environmental factor. The key to covering this dimension of market analysis is to ask: 1. Who drives the organization? 2. Who or what can benefit the organization? 3. Who or what can hurt the business?

Competitive Analysis

  • Businesses must evaluate competitors in their industry. Competitors are defined as companies that can produce a similar service or product and serve the same customers. This dimension of market analysis includes noting similarities and differences in key competitors’ strengths. These strengths could be defined in terms of product cost, operational efficiency, brand recognition, or market penetration. Including a competitive analysis supports the case for new opportunities to gain customers and revenue.

Target Audience Analysis

  • Each business targets a group of people who are most likely to purchase their product. Identifying this group based on location, age, gender, income, ethnicity, activities, beliefs and behaviors is part of the target audience analysis. In this dimension of market analysis, people who use the product or influence the purchase decision are included in the target audience. For example, a car dealership may target women 35 to 45 years old as those more likely to drive minivans, although their husbands may ultimately make a purchase. If the car dealership includes women as an influence on car purchase decisions, they may discover creative programs and advertisements that persuade women. In addition, target audience analysis may include more than one group or segment.

SWOT Analysis

  • SWOT stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. This portion of market analysis establishes a direction based on key issues being addressed. The SWOT analysis examines the internal strengths and weaknesses against the external opportunities and threats. This analysis is a more detailed perspective concerning the business objective, with reference to other dimensions of market analysis.